Stablecoins have gained significant popularity in recent years, providing a unique blend of the stability of traditional currencies and the efficiency of digital assets.


Stablecoins have gained significant popularity in recent years, providing a unique blend of the stability of traditional currencies and the efficiency of digital assets. As these digital currencies continue to make waves in the financial landscape, it is crucial to understand the regulatory framework surrounding stablecoin issuers, particularly in the United Kingdom. In this article, we will delve into the licensing requirements for stablecoin issuers in the UK and shed light on the necessary steps to navigate this complex landscape.

The rise of stablecoins

Before we explore the licensing requirements, let’s take a moment to understand what stablecoins are and why they have become a prominent player in the digital currency realm. Stablecoins are a type of cryptocurrency that aims to maintain a stable value by pegging their worth to an underlying asset, such as a fiat currency like the British pound or a commodity like gold. This stability makes them an attractive medium of exchange and a store of value for users seeking to avoid the volatility often associated with other cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin.

The regulatory environment

In the United Kingdom, the regulatory framework for stablecoins falls under the purview of the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA). The FCA is the primary regulatory body responsible for overseeing and supervising financial activities within the UK, ensuring the stability and integrity of the financial system.

E-money licence

To operate as a stablecoin issuer in the UK, one of the key licences to consider is the Electronic Money Institution (EMI) licence. This licence is granted under the Electronic Money Regulations 2011 and is specifically tailored for entities engaged in issuing and distributing electronic money.

Obtaining an EMI licence involves a thorough application process that requires the stablecoin issuer to demonstrate compliance with various regulatory requirements. These requirements include adequate capitalisation, robust anti-money laundering measures, operational safeguards, and governance standards.

Payment institution licence

In addition to the EMI licence, a stablecoin issuer may also need to obtain a Payment Institution (PI) licence from the FCA. This licence is relevant if the stablecoin issuer intends to provide payment services, such as facilitating transactions or offering electronic wallets to its users.

Similar to the EMI licence, the PI licence application process entails proving compliance with stringent regulatory obligations. These obligations encompass safeguarding customer funds, implementing strong security measures, and conducting regular risk assessments to mitigate potential threats.

Regulatory compliance and beyond

While obtaining the necessary licences is a critical step for stablecoin issuers, regulatory compliance is an ongoing endeavour. Stablecoin issuers must continually monitor and adapt to changes in the regulatory landscape to ensure they meet the evolving requirements. This includes staying up to date with any guidelines or statements issued by the FCA and implementing necessary changes to their operations, technology, and risk management practices.

Additionally, stablecoin issuers should maintain transparent communication with the FCA, promptly reporting any material changes, incidents, or concerns that may impact their operations or the interests of their users. Collaboration and open dialogue with the regulatory authorities are key to fostering trust and ensuring the stability of the broader financial ecosystem.

In conclusion, stablecoins’ taxability in the UK depends on their classification as exchange tokens or e-money tokens. Exchange tokens are subject to capital gains tax, while e-money tokens may be subject to income tax. Adhering to proper record-keeping, accurately calculating tax liability, and fulfilling reporting obligations are essential for individuals and businesses involved in stablecoin transactions.

As the cryptocurrency landscape evolves and regulations develop, it is essential to seek professional advice and stay updated on the latest guidelines issued by regulatory authorities. By doing so, individuals and businesses can navigate the tax implications of stablecoins in the UK effectively while ensuring compliance with tax regulations.


As the world of digital currencies evolves, stablecoins have emerged as a compelling solution for individuals and businesses seeking stability in a fast-paced financial landscape. For stablecoin issuers in the United Kingdom, obtaining the necessary licences, such as the EMI licence and the PI licence, is crucial to operate legally and build trust with users.

Navigating the regulatory landscape can be complex, but compliance with the FCA’s requirements is essential to ensure the stability, security, and integrity of the financial system. By adhering to these licensing obligations and staying abreast of regulatory developments, stablecoin issuers can play a vital role in shaping the future of digital finance in the UK and beyond.

The benefits of licensing

Obtaining the appropriate licences not only ensures legal compliance but also offers several advantages for stablecoin issuers. First and foremost, acquiring an EMI licence or a PI licence from the FCA demonstrates a commitment to transparency and accountability. It reassures users that the stablecoin issuer operates within a regulated framework, safeguarding their funds and adhering to strict security protocols.

Moreover, holding the necessary licences opens up opportunities for collaboration and partnerships with traditional financial institutions. Banks and other established entities often prefer to engage with licenced stablecoin issuers, as it provides them with a level of confidence in the issuer’s compliance and risk management practices.

Licensing also helps foster user trust and confidence. The regulatory oversight and scrutiny that come with obtaining licences help weed out fraudulent or untrustworthy actors from the market. Users are more likely to engage with stablecoins issued by licensed entities, knowing that their interests are protected by regulatory authorities.

Case Study: Stablecoin X

To illustrate the licensing process and its implications, let’s take a look at a fictional stablecoin issuer called Stablecoin X. The company aims to issue a stablecoin pegged to the British pound and provide payment services to its users.

Stablecoin X recognises the importance of regulatory compliance and decides to pursue licensing from the FCA. The company assembles a team of legal and compliance experts to guide them through the application process. They carefully review the Electronic Money Regulations 2011 and Payment Services Regulations 2017 to ensure they meet all the necessary requirements.

The first step for Stablecoin X is to apply for an EMI licence. They prepare a comprehensive application that includes detailed information about their business model, operational infrastructure, risk management procedures, and governance structure. They also provide evidence of their capitalisation, anti-money laundering measures, and customer safeguarding mechanisms.

Simultaneously, Stablecoin X begins the application for a PI licence. They demonstrate their capability to provide secure payment services, highlighting their robust technological infrastructure and their commitment to user protection.

The FCA thoroughly reviews the applications submitted by Stablecoin X. The regulator assesses the company’s compliance with regulatory obligations, including anti-money laundering procedures, customer funds safeguarding, and cybersecurity measures. The FCA also evaluates the suitability of the company’s directors and key personnel.

After a diligent review process, Stablecoin X successfully obtains both the EMI licence and the PI licence. This achievement boosts their credibility in the market and allows them to confidently launch their stablecoin and payment services.

Stablecoin X continues to prioritise regulatory compliance by regularly reviewing and enhancing their internal controls, risk management protocols, and cybersecurity measures. They maintain open communication channels with the FCA, promptly reporting any significant changes or incidents and seeking guidance when needed.

The future of stablecoin regulation

While the current regulatory framework in the UK provides guidance for stablecoin issuers, the landscape is still evolving. As stablecoins gain further traction and global adoption, regulators worldwide are actively exploring additional measures to address potential risks and ensure consumer protection.

Stablecoin issuers must stay informed about regulatory developments and actively engage in industry discussions. By participating in dialogues with regulators, stablecoin issuers can contribute to the formulation of effective and balanced regulations that foster innovation while mitigating potential risks.

In conclusion, for stablecoin issuers in the United Kingdom, obtaining the necessary licences, such as the EMI licence and the PI licence, is crucial for legal compliance, user trust, and building fruitful partnerships. By navigating the regulatory landscape diligently and adapting to evolving requirements, stablecoin issuers can play a pivotal role in shaping the future of digital finance while ensuring the stability and security of the financial ecosystem.

The importance of consumer protection

Consumer protection is a paramount concern within the realm of stablecoin issuance. Regulators, including the FCA, emphasise the need for stablecoin issuers to prioritise the safeguarding of user funds and the implementation of robust security measures. This focus on consumer protection aims to prevent fraud, unauthorised access, and potential financial losses.

To ensure adequate consumer protection, stablecoin issuers are expected to establish stringent security protocols, including multi-factor authentication, encryption, and regular system audits. They should also implement comprehensive know-your-customer (KYC) and anti-money laundering (AML) procedures to mitigate the risk of illicit activities.

Furthermore, stablecoin issuers should provide clear and transparent information to users regarding the functioning of their stablecoin, including the mechanisms used to maintain price stability and the associated risks. This transparency helps users make informed decisions and better understand the underlying dynamics of the stablecoin they are using.

The impact of global regulatory cooperation

The regulatory landscape for stablecoin issuance extends beyond national boundaries. Given the borderless nature of digital currencies, international collaboration and harmonisation of regulations are crucial. Regulatory authorities from different countries actively engage in discussions and seek to establish common frameworks to address the challenges posed by stablecoins.

In this context, stablecoin issuers operating in the UK must also consider regulatory requirements and guidance issued by international bodies, such as the Financial Stability Board (FSB) and the International Organisation of Securities Commissions (IOSCO). Staying attuned to global developments enables stablecoin issuers to adapt their practices and maintain compliance with evolving regulatory standards.

Conclusion: Navigating the licensing landscape

In the rapidly evolving world of stablecoins, obtaining the appropriate licences is a critical step for issuers in the UK. The EMI licence and the PI licence, granted by the FCA, establish a framework for regulatory compliance and provide stability and trust to users and partners.

By obtaining these licences, stablecoin issuers demonstrate their commitment to transparency, security, and consumer protection. Licensing also opens doors to collaboration with traditional financial institutions and helps build user confidence in the stability and integrity of their operations.

However, obtaining licences is just the beginning. Regulatory compliance is an ongoing endeavour, requiring stablecoin issuers to stay abreast of changing regulations, maintain open communication with regulators, and adapt their practices accordingly. By doing so, stablecoin issuers can contribute to the development of a robust and secure digital finance ecosystem while reaping the benefits of operating within a regulated framework.

As the world continues to explore the potential of stablecoins and their impact on the financial landscape, regulatory frameworks will continue to evolve. Stablecoin issuers must remain proactive, adaptable, and committed to compliance, ensuring that their operations align with the evolving expectations of regulators and the needs of users. By doing so, they can contribute to the growth and maturation of stablecoins as a viable financial instrument in the UK and beyond.

Published On: June 25th, 2023 / Categories: blog /
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